Climate science involves many different inter-related natural systems on earth - it's more than just the human influence or carbon dioxide/greenhouse gas emissions. Some climate drivers are natural and cyclical - like the repeating patterns of El Nino Southern Oscillation. Some are spontaneous and unexpected - like volcanoes or large wildfires.
The Sun has direct and indirect effects on earth's climate. Since the Solar Dynamics Observatory went into space just over 5 years ago, we are learning more about solar activity. Changing solar activity affects earth's geomagnetism, tides, ocean and atmospheric oscillations, cloud cover, atmospheric concentrations and more. Some of these effects can be seen - like the Northern Lights illustrating how the solar wind is affecting atmospheric concentrations of gases. Learn more.